Thursday, February 25, 2010

Inductive Proximity Switches

When an application calls for detecting a metallic target that falls within an inch of the sensing surface, inductive proximity sensors are apt for the task. First introduced in the early 1960s, these durable components have proven their mettle in the sensing arena. In fact, they're the best-selling sensing technology in the world. Their immunity to dust and dirt buildup suits them well for harsh industrial environments. Additionally, the standardized physical and electrical characteristics of the general-purpose, cylindrical types of these sensors simplify their use.
An inductive proximity sensor has four components: the coil, oscillator, detection circuit, and output circuit. The target material, environment, and mounting restrictions all have an influence on these items and on the senor's operation, magnetic nature, and shielding. The oscillator generates a fluctuating, doughnut-shaped magnetic field around the winding of the coil, which is located in the device's sensing face. When a metal object moves into the sensor's field of detection, Eddy currents build up in the object, magnetically push back, and finally dampen the sensor's own oscillation field. The sensor's detection circuit monitors the amplitude of the oscillation and, when it becomes sufficiently damped, triggers the output circuitry.

There are five categories of inductive proximity sensors: cylindrical, rectangular, miniature, harsh environment, and special purpose. Cylindrical threaded-barrel sensors account for 70% of all inductive proximity sensor purchases. Years ago, this style's behavior was standardized by the CENELEC organization, which determined characteristics such as body size, sensing distances, and output levels.

Inductive Proximity switches can come in many shapes and sizes. The most common is a cylindrical switch or sensor, in 12, 18 or 30 mm. Other styles are flat pack, limit switch style, and slot. Switches normally sense from 2mm to 10 mm. Longer ranges can be used, but may need to be an unshielded switch.

Manufacturers are Pepperl and Fuchs, Autonics, ATC, Carlo Gavazzi and EMX.

Please visit our web site for Proximity switches.


Sunday, February 21, 2010

Penberthy Sight Flows and windows for visual indication

Penberthy offers one of the industry’s most complete lines of sight flow indicators and sight windows with our FLUIDVISION™ product line. They include ANSI, Teflon®/Tefzel® lined, FM approved dual-window, armored, full-view, threaded window and low-flow gaseous models. All popular sizes and materials of construction available, with flanged, threaded and special connections, as well as rotator, flapper, drip-tube or plain indicator styles. Also includes threaded, oblong and conventional sight windows.

SF Plain NPT Sight Flow Indicator
SFF NPT SFI (Flapper)
SFR NPT SFI (Rotator)
SFD NPT SFI (Drip Tube)
SFG NPT SFI (Gaseous)
SF-F Plain Flanged Sight Flow Indicator
SFF-F Flanged SFI (Flapper)
SFR-F Flanged SFI (Rotator)
SFD-F Flanged SFI (Drip Tube)
SFG-F Flanged SFI (Gaseous)
SFB Plain Ball Type SFI
SFB-F Flanged Ball Type SFI

Powerful flow streams are mastered by heavy-duty construction.
Available in flanged models only, these Sight Flow Indicators meet tough ANSI standards for 300# and 600# requirements. Made from single-piece, cast-construction bodies, these SFIs are available with all five styles of Penberthy indication.

Models 300#
SM-F Plain Flanged Sight Flow Indicator
SMF-F Flanged SFI (Flapper)
SMR-F Flanged SFI (Rotator)
SMD-F Flanged SFI (Drip Tube)
SMG-F Flanged SFI (Gaseous)
SFB Plain Ball Type SFISFB
SFB-F Flanged Ball Type SFISFB-F

Dual-Window Sight Flow Indicators provide two glass discs on each side, so that if either glass should fail for any reason, the other window can temporarily withstand pressures until the unit can be repaired or replaced. Dual-Window Sight Flow Indicators and Factory Mutual System Approved Dual-Window Sight Flow Indicators are available in 150# NPT Models and 150# and 300# Flanged Models. FM-Approved 150# units are rated for 150 psig. FM-Approved 300# units are rated for 300 psig.

150# NPT Dual-Window

DWFPlain Dual-Window NPT SFI
DWFFDual-Window NPT SFI (Flapper)
DWFRDual-Window NPT SFI (Rotator)
DWFDDual-Window NPT SFI (Drip Tube)
DWFGDual-Window NPT SFI (Gaseous)

Dual windows are comprised of two glass discs held in position by a metallic housing, internal shims and gaskets (pictured above).

The double, tempered glass window design provides added protection in applications where there is:

External mechanical impact - if the outer glass is cracked or shattered, the inner glass can temporarily continue in service until the unit can be repaired or replaced.

Abnormal compressive forces - in maintenance or replacement situations, the housing assists in alignment of the glass and can absorb uneven or excessive compression.

Thermal shock - in high temperature applications the inner and outer glass protect one another from an extreme thermal gradient. The air pocket between the glass provides an insulative effect.

Corrosion/erosion - if the inner glass is weakened and it breaks, the outer glass can temporarily contain the fluid, withstand the pressure, and continue in service until the unit can be repaired or replaced.

Full-View Sight Flow Indicators provide maximum, 360° viewing of fluid dynamics.
Available in NPT threaded-end and flanged designs, these Sight Flow Indicators are designed to enhance the visibility of process media as it passes through the glass cylinder. Full 360° viewing area expands the number of positions and locations in which the unit can be mounted for full visibility.

SNVPlain NPT FV Sight Flow Indicator
SNLPlain Large Cylinder FV SFI
SNV-FPlain Flanged FV Sight Flow Indicator
SNVD-FFlanged FV SFI (Drip Tube)

The Full-View Sight Flow Indicators are recommended for low-pressure applications where maximum visibility is needed. In addition to standard length models, Penberthy offers customized lengths up to 48", in 1/8" increments.

Full-View Sight Flow Indicators are unique because the "character" of the liquid can be viewed. In other words, a typical sight flow allows observation of liquids through a glass pane. The Full-View sight flow allows observation of liquids in transit through a more dynamic, 3-dimensional pipeline. Designing the Full-View to match the pipe diameter streamlines the liquid flow through the sight flow and helps avoid solids settling.

Units are best suited for vertical applications. Horizontal mounting is acceptable if there is no mechanical strain imposed on the glass cylinder. Flange mounting studs are provided with SNV-F and SNVD-F flanged models for convenient flange-to-flange connections. Providing customized studs reduces the possibility of damaging the glass or flange by selecting an inappropriate bolt size or torquing the Full-View Sight Flow Indicator beyond its proper limit. To enhance quality and performance, the Full-View Sight Flow Indicator uses ductile iron rather than gray iron as the standard material of construction.

Please visit Anderson-Bolds for more information and to purchase Penberthy products.

Saturday, February 20, 2010

Penberthy Jet Pumps / Eductors

Penberthy jet pumps can provide a practical alternative to more complex - and costly - process components when a simple, cost-effective way to pump, mix or heat is the answer to your process need. Reliable operation from a variety of power sources allow jet pumps to perform effectively on a wide array of process applications.
Not only can jet pumps be used to perform singular duties such as pumping liquids to drain sumps and tanks, or heating liquids in-tank for cooking or circulating, but they can also be used to achieve these functions simultaneously. For example, you can heat liquids as they are pumped for producing scalding sprays, or mix liquids in-tank while adding a second liquid at the same time.
Simple operation
While Penberthy jet pumps differ in appearance, all operate basically the same way. An operating fluid under pressure enters through the inlet and travels through the nozzle -- where it is converted to a high-velocity stream which decreases the air pressure in the suction chamber, creating a partial vacuum that draws material to that

area where it is entrained by the operating medium. The entrained material is then carried through to the discharge outlet and dispelled at a pressure greater than that of the suction stream but lower than that of the operating medium.
Inherent reliabilityThe reliability of Penberthy jet pumps is inherent
in their simple design: no moving parts, no required lubrication, little maintenance, easy installation without special structures or foundations. All are self-priming. And all Penberthy models are available in a variety of materials to maximize worry-free service life.
A choice of operating sources
Penberthy jet pumps let you choose the operating source th

at's most convenient for your application. These include aqueous and non-aqueous liquids, steam or even compressed gas. Economical sources which may already be available at your existing facility. And possibly more ac
cessible than another power source such as electricity.
While Penbert
hy jet pumps may differ in appearance, basic operation is the same. Jet pumps, also known as eductors, operate on the principles of fluid dynamics. An operating fluid media, which is ref
erred to as the MOTIVE, place under pressure enters the inlet and is forced through the nozzle where it is converted into a high-velocity stream. This high-velocity stream decreases the pressure in the suction chamber, creating a partial vacuum that draws the suction material into the chamber where it is entrained by the motive media. Once the SUCTION stream is drawn in, shear between motive media and the transported material causes both media to be intermixed and pumped out the DISCHARGE outlet, dispelled at a pressure greater than the of the SUCTION stream but lower than that of the MOTIVE. This basic principle of fluid dynamics is what makes Penberthy jet pumps work. (Jet Pump Cutaway )
MOTIVE: This function is the power phase of the pumping operation. At this stage, the velocity of the motive media increases as it passes through a nozzle. This phase of the pumping operation takes advantage of the kinetic properties of the motive media, whether it is liquid, steam or gas. Because of this, design differences may exist within the motive connection of the jet pump. For instance, jet pumps with liquid motives use a converging nozzle, since liquids usually cannot be compressed. On the other hand, jet pumps with gas or steam motives use converging/diverging nozzles to achieve trans-sonic flow velocity. The
critical flow paths of all Penberthy jet pumps are smoothly machined with no abrupt turns or steps in order to produce the most efficient flow during the motive function. Without this direct flow design and smooth interior surface, the jet pump would not operate at peak efficiency.
SUCTION: This connection of the jet pump is where the pumping action takes place. The high velocity stream of the motive causes a drop in pressure in the suction chamber. This allows pressure in the suction vessel to push a liquid, steam or gas into the suction chamber of the jet pump. This, in turn, is entrained by the high-velocity motive stream emerging from the inlet nozzle
As the motive flow combines with the suction medium, some kinetic energy of the

MOTIVE is transferred to the SUCTION, mixing and discharging at a reduced pressure. The amount of pressure that can be recovered depends on the ratio of the MOTIVE flow to SUCTION flow, plus the amount of SUCTION pressure built up in the suction vessel. Kinetic energy is converted back to pressure as the mixed media passes through the diverging taper and is discharged out the pump.

Problems/Solutions Using Jet Pumps
Below are listed some of the problems encountered by our users in different industries and the solutions that were used to solve these problems. These industries include:
Water/Waste Water TreatmentMarina
AutomotiveFood Processing
EnvironmentalWater Collection Pits
Barge TerminalTank Heating
BreweryTransporting Solids
Corn ProcessingHeating Systems

Water/Waste Water Treatment:
ProblemA water treatment plant wanted to entrain activated carbon as a filtering media to treat and regenerate application material to meet EPA regulations prior to disposing in a sewer.
SolutionA Penberthy Model ELL was used to hydraulically transport the carbon media. Model LM could also have been used
ProblemA treatment facility needed to pump and mix a variety of chemicals in a water stream to control pH levels.
SolutionUsing a Penberthy L Series liquid motive jet, they were able to do this in-line

Automotive Industry:
ProblemAssemblers had to hold windshields in place during assembly.
SolutionUsing a Penberthy G Series jet, they were able to generate a vacuum to hold the windshield while it was positioned.
ProblemA tire manufacturer needed to evacuate steam from a bladder in order for the tire to be removed from the tire press.
SolutionA Penberthy G Series jet was installed to evacuate the steam and speed up the production cycle.
ProblemSettling of materials in electrocoat and pretreatment tanks in automotive paint lines had to be eliminated in order to improve overall paint quality.
SolutionInstallation of Penberthy Model TME (Tank Mixing Eductors) provided low electrical conductivity and smooth mixing flow characteristics, improving paint finishes.

Environmental Ground Water Testing:
ProblemA chemist required an efficient method of extracting ground water samples for chemical analysis.
SolutionUsing Penberthy Series L jet pumps, samples were taken and transferred to holding tanks for evaluation and testing.

Railcar Cleaning:
ProblemRailcars need an effective method of removing a variety of powdered materials.
SolutionA simple and effective method would be to use a Penberthy GST Model jet using compressed air as the motive

Barge Terminals/Barge Cleaning:
ProblemBarge terminal operators need a cost-effective method of removing rainwater from barges.
SolutionPenberthy Model L Series jet pumps are used to hydraulically pump the water from the barge. This water is transported into another barge for testing and treatment before being discharged back into the river.

ProblemA brewery needed to heat liquids as part of the pasteurization process.
SolutionUsing a Penberthy Model SRH, the liquid was heated and pasteurized in-line. In this application, processing was improved by 30%.

Corn Processing Plants:
ProblemA corn processing plant needed an inexpensive and efficient method or removing carbon dust from the bottom of their furnaces.
SolutionThey attached a perforated pipe to the suction inlet of a Penberthy Model LM jet, and using water as the motive, a vacuum was created sucking up the carbon dust.

Plastics Industries:
ProblemThe company needed an effective means of detecting leaks in molds.
SolutionBy using a Penberthy Model LM jet with the suction hooked up to the mold, they were able to generate a vacuum which detected leaks in the mold or seals.

Boat Docks:
ProblemBoats sitting in a marina during the winter months became immobilized due to ice buildup.
SolutionUsing a Penberthy Model CTE, warmer water was brought to the surface preventing the water from freezing.

Food Processing:
ProblemA processor potato chips wanted to heat water in a blancher to remove potato skins.
SolutionA Penberthy Model SRH was installed at the bottom of a tank. The water draining from the tank had sufficient head pressure to mix with the steam to allow recirculation back into the tank as well as reaching desired temperature.

Water Collection Pits:
ProblemA number of businesses and homeowners needed an effective way to remove water from sump pits during flooding.
SolutionPenberthy Sump Drainer and L Series jets provided reliable methods of removing the water using no electrical power.

Mixing/Blending Applications:
ProblemA storage tank manufacturer needed to move dry solids - diatomaceous earth - into a blending tank.
SolutionUsing a Penberthy Model LM with a Penberthy Washdown Hopper, they were able to mix the earth with the motive fluid and transport it into the blending tank. Once in the tank, a Penberthy Model CTE was used to provide continuous in-tank mixing.

Tank Heating:
ProblemA company needed to maintain a minimum liquid temperature in their tanks, regardless of outside ambient temperatures.
SolutionUsing a Penberthy Model CTE as an in-tank heater in conjunction with a simple temperature control system, steam was mixed with the liquid when the outside temperature fell below a certain level.

Transporting Solids:
ProblemA manufacturer of silo systems for wastewater treatment that used wetting cones with powdered activated carbon needed a means of moving the resulting slurry.
SolutionBy installing various Penberthy Series L liquid motive jets at the bottom of each cone, the manufacturer was able to move the slurry away using water as the motive.

Heating Systems:
ProblemCondensation pits associated with underground heating systems needed to be emptied.
SolutionA Penberthy model 2-R Sump Drainer was installed in each pit. This stand-alone system uses water as the motive and requires no electrical power.

Please visit Anderson-Bolds to purchase or to get help with your application.